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HFC-245fa is a common working fluid used in Organic Rankine Cycles generating mechanical power from low temperature heat. This paper compares the predicted ORC performance of two novel low GWP working fluids, HCFO-1233zd-E and HFO-1336mzz-Z, to HFC-245fa over a wide range of evaporating temperatures, condensing temperatures and vapour superheat values. Expander power output, required pump power input, net cycle efficiencies, mass flow rates and turbine size parameters with HCFO-1233zd-E, HFO-1336mzz-Z and HFC-245fa were compared for a given thermal power input. HCFO-1233zd-E and HFO-1336mzz-Z are predicted to have attractive thermodynamic Rankine power cycle performance. HCFO-1233zd-E would require 10.3%–17.3% lower pump power and would enable up to 10.6% higher net cycle efficiencies than HFC-245fa over the range of cycle conditions examined in this paper. The turbine size required with HCFO-1233zd-E would be up to about 7.5%–10.2% larger than with HFC-245fa. HFO-1336mzz-Z would require 36.5%–41% lower pump power and would enable up to 17% higher net cycle efficiencies than HFC-245fa over the range of cycle conditions examined in this paper. The turbine size required with HFO-1336mzz-Z would be up to about 30.9%–41.5% larger than with HFC-245fa. HFO-1336mzz-Z cycle efficiency is benefitted substantially by a recuperator. The net cycle efficiency increases and the required turbine size decreases relative to HFC-245fa for HCFO-1233zd-E and for HFO-1336mzz-Z at higher evaporating and condensing temperatures.
Molés, F., J. Navarro-Esbrí, B. Peris, A. Mota-Babiloni, Á. Barragán-Cervera, & K. Kontomaris (2014) Low GWP alternatives to HFC-245fa in Organic Rankine Cycles for low temperature heat recovery: HCFO-1233zd-E and HFO-1336mzz-Z, Applied Thermal Engineering 71(1):204-212.