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Abstract - The emissions and ash behaviour during combustion of wood chips, or co-combustion of two solid agricultural fuels (reed canary grass and barley straw) with wood chips, were studied. In addition, the sensitivity of the results towards different air-staging conditions was investigated using pure wood chips. The experiments were carried out in a 40-kW combustion reactor equipped with a reciprocating-grate burner. The addition of the reed canary grass to the wood chips increased only slightly the emission of fine particles (PM1), nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur dioxide (SO2); while carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen chloride (HCl), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and the geometric diameter (GMD) of the particles either decreased or remained unchanged. However, the number of particles emitted increased 2-fold in the reed canary grass combustion compared to the pure wood chips. In contrast, the addition of straw to wood chips substantially increased the emissions of PM1, CO, EC, SO2 and HCl. The straw-originating particles were mostly crystalline KCl, and their number emission was clearly reduced, but their size was larger compared to the case with pure wood chips. The distribution of the combustion air had only a very minor influence on the release of the major ash species, whereas the effect was significant for the release of specific trace metals and the products of incomplete combustion. Finally, the partitioning of ash-forming elements with various fuels was evaluated based on chemical analyses of the fuel, bottom ash and fine fly ash fractions.
Kortelainen, M., J. Jokiniemi, I. Nuutinen, T. Torvela, H. Lamberg, T. Karhunen, J. Tissari, & O. Sippula (2015) Ash behaviour and emission formation in a small-scale reciprocating-grate combustion reactor operated with wood chips, reed canary grass and barley straw, FUEL 143:80-88.