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Rice, maize and cassava are the key staple crops in SEA. Sustainable production of these major crops is adversely affected by climate hazards resulting in reduced yields and productivity. Strategies and measures to cope with and to adapt to climate change are imperative to enhance resilience of crop production systems2 to the vagaries of weather and the adverse impacts of a changing climate.
Climate-smart agriculture, forestry and fisheries (CSA), integrates the three dimensions of sustainable development (economic, social and environmental) by jointly addressing food security and climate change. CSA is composed of three main pillars: (1) sustainably increasing agricultural productivity and incomes; (2) adapting and building resilience to climate change; and (3) reducing greenhouse gases emissions from agricultural production and processing.
The objective of these guidelines is: